Serpent Power Kundalini Six Chakras

Each of these "astral" centres has certain functions: at the navel, a simple power of feeling; at the spleen, "conscious travel" in the astral body; at the heart, "a power to comprehend and sympathise with the vibrations of other astral entities"; at the throat, power of hearing on the astral plane; between the eyebrows, "astral sight"; at the "top of the head," perfection of all faculties of the astral life.1

Svadhisthana Cakra : Thus, at the second centre, one is conscious in the physical body "of all kinds of astral influences, vaguely feeling that some of them are friendly and some hostile without in the least knowing why".
Maṇipūra Cakra : At the third centre one is enabled to remember "only partially" vague astral journeys, with sometimes half-remembrance of a blissful sensation of flying through the air.
Anāhata Cakra : At the fourth centre man is instinctively aware of the joys and sorrows of others, sometimes reproducing in himself their physical aches and pains.
Viśuddha Cakra : At the arousing of the fifth centre he hears voices "which make all kinds of suggestions to him". Sometimes he hears music "or other less pleasant sounds".3 Full development secures clairaudience in the "astral" plane.

Ājñā Cakra : The arousing of the sixth centre secures results which are at first of a trivial character, such as "half seeing landscapes and clouds of colour," but subsequently amount to clairvoyance. Here it is said there is a power of magnification by means of an "etheric" flexible tube which resembles "the microscopic snake on the head-dress of the Pharaohs". The Power to expand or control the eye of this "microscopic snake" is stated to be the meaning of the statement, in ancient books, of the capacity to make oneself large or small at will.1 When the pituitary body is brought into working order, it forms a link with the astral vehicle, and when the Fire reaches the sixth centre, and fully vivifies it, the voice of the "Master" (which in this case means the higher self in its various stages) is heard.2
Sahasrāra Cakra : The awakening of the seventh centre enables one to leave the body in full consciousness.
"When the fire has thus passed through all these centres in a certain order (which varies for different types of people), the consciousness becomes continuous up to the entry into the heaven world3 at the end of the life on the astral plane.''
There are some resemblances between this account and the teaching of the Yoga Śāstra, with which in a general
way the author cited appears to have some acquaintance, and which may have suggested to him some features of his
account. There are firstly seven centres, which with one exception correspond with the Cakras described. The
author says that there are three other lower centres, but that concentration on them is full of danger. What these
are is not stated. There is no centre lower, that I am aware of, than the Mūlādhāra (as the name "root-centre" itself
implies), and the only centre near to it which is excluded, in the above-mentioned account, is the Apas Tattva centre,
or Svādhiṣṭhāna.

Next there is the Force, "the Serpent Fire," which the Hindus call Kuṇḍalinī, in the lowest centre, the Mūlādhāra. Lastly, the effect of the rousing of this force, which is accomplished by will power (Yoga-bala),1 is said to exalt the physical consciousness through the ascending planes to the "heaven world".

Further, as I have elsewhere pointed out,2 the Yogis say that the piercing of the Brahmāgranthi or "knot"3 sometimes involves considerable pain, physical disorder, and even disease, as is not unlikely to follow from concentration on such a centre as the navel (Nabhipadma).

To use Hindu terms, the Sādhaka must be competent (Adhikari), a matter to be determined by his Guru, from
whom alone the actual method of Yoga can be learned. The incidental dangers, however, stated by the author, go
beyond any mentioned to me by Indians themselves, who seem to be in general unaware of the subject of "phallic sorcery," to which reference is made by the author, who speaks of Schools of (apparently Western) "Black Magic" which are said to use Kuṇḍalinī for the purpose of stimulating the sexual centre.

There are three "knots" which have to be pierced or centres where the force of Māyā is particularly strong.

SarvaHimsaVinirmukta), ever doing good to all (SarvaPranihite ratah), pure (Shuchi); a believer in Veda (Astika), whose faith and refuge is in Brahman (Brahmish- thah, Brahmāvadi, Brahmi, Brahmāparayana), and who is a non-dualist (Dvaitahina). "Such an one is competent in this Scripture, otherwise he is no Sādhaka". (So'smin Śastre, dhikari syat tadanyatra na sadhakah.)

With such an attitude it is possible that, as pointed out by an Indian writer (Ch. VII post), concentration on the lower centres associated with the passions may, so far from rousing, quiet them. It is quite possible, on the other hand, that another attitude, practice, and purpose, may produce another result. To speak, however, of concentration on the sexual centre is itself misleading, for the Cakras are not in the gross body,) and concentration is done upon the subtle centre, with its presiding Consciousness, even though such centres may have ultimate relation with gross physical function.

Kuṇḍalinī is the static form of the creative energy in bodies which is the source of all energies, including Prāṇa.

"We can meet with several persons every day elbowing us in the streets or bazaars who in all sincerity attempted to reach the highest plane of bliss, but fell victims on the way to the illusions of the psychic world, and stopped at one or the other of the six Cakras. They are of varying degrees of attainment, and are seen to possess some power which is not found even in the best intellectuals of the ordinary run of mankind. That this school of practical psychology was working very well in India at one time is evident from these living instances (not to speak of the numberless treatises on the subject) of men roaming about in all parts of the country." The mere rousing of the Serpent power does not, from the spiritual Yoga standpoint, amount to much. Nothing, however, of real moment, from the higher Yogi's point of view, is achieved until the Ājñā Cakra is reached.

According to Indian notions, success (Siddhi) in Yoga may be the fruit of experiences of many preceding lives. Kuṇḍalinī must be gradually raised from one centre to another until she reaches the Lotus in the cerebrum. The length of time required varies in the individual - it may be years ordinarily or in exceptional cases months.

Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Śiva are the names for functions of the one Universal Consciousness
operating in ourselves.

He said he had been going through some antics, imitating the posture of a Yogi, when suddenly "sleep" had come over him. It was surmised that his breath must have stopped, and that, being in the right position and conditions, he had unwittingly roused Kundall, who had ascended to Her cerebral centre. Not, however, being a Yogi he could not bring her down again. This, further, can only be done when the Nāḍīs (v. post) are pure. I told the Pandit (who gave me this story, who was learned in this Yoga, and whose brother practised it) of the case of a European friend of mine who was not acquainted with the Yoga processes here described, though he had read something about Kuṇḍalī in translation of Sanskrit works, and who, nevertheless, believed he had roused Kuṇḍalī by meditative processes alone. In fact, as he wrote me, it was useless for him as a European to go into the minutiae of Eastern Yoga. He, however, saw the "nerves" Iḍa and Piṅgalā (v. post), and the "central fire" with a trembling aura of rosy light, and blue or azure light, and a white fire which rose up into the brain and flamed out in a winged radiance on either side of the head. Fire was seen flashing from centre to centre with such rapidity that he could see little of the vision, and movements of forces were seen in the bodies of others. The radiance or aura round Iḍa was seen as moonlike - that is, palest azure - and Piṅgalā red or rather pale rosy opalescence. Kuṇḍalī appeared in vision as of intense golden-like white fire rather burled spirally.

He said he had been going through some antics, imitating the posture of a Yogi, when suddenly "sleep" had come over him. It was surmised that his breath must have stopped, and that, being in the right position and conditions, he had unwittingly roused Kundall, who had ascended to Her cerebral centre. Not, however, being a Yogi he could not bring her down again. This, further, can only be done when the Nāḍīs (v. post) are pure. I told the Pandit (who gave me this story, who was learned in this Yoga, and whose brother practised it) of the case of a European friend of mine who was not acquainted with the Yoga processes here described, though he had read something about Kuṇḍalī in translation of Sanskrit works, and who, nevertheless, believed he had roused Kuṇḍalī by meditative processes alone. In fact, as he wrote me, it was useless for him as a European to go into the minutiae of Eastern Yoga. He, however, saw the "nerves" Iḍa and Piṅgalā (v. post), and the "central fire" with a trembling aura of rosy light, and blue or azure light, and a white fire which rose up into the brain and flamed out in a winged radiance on either side of the head. Fire was seen flashing from centre to centre with such rapidity that he could see little of the vision, and movements of forces were seen in the bodies of others. The radiance or aura round Iḍa was seen as moonlike - that is, palest azure - and Piṅgalā red or rather pale rosy opalescence. Kuṇḍalī appeared in vision as of intense golden-like white fire rather burled spirally.

The Pandit's observations on this experience were as follows: If the breath is stopped and the mind is carried downwards, heat is felt. It is possible to "see" Kuṇḍalinī with the mental eye, and in this way to experience Her
without actually arousing Her and bringing Her up, which can only be effected by the Yoga methods prescribed.
Kuṇḍalinī may have thus been seen as Light in the basal centre (Mūlādhāra ). It was the mind (Buddhi) (v. post)
which perceived Her, but as the experiencer had not been taught the practice he got confused.

There is one simple test whether the Śakti is actually aroused. When she
is aroused intense heat is felt at that spot but when she leaves a particular centre the part so left becomes as cold
and apparently lifeless as a corpse. The progress upwards may thus be externally verified by others. When the
Śakti (Power) has reached the upper brain (Sahasrāra) the whole body is cold and corpse-like; except the top of the.
skull, where some warmth is felt, this being the place where the static and kinetic aspects of Consciousness unite.
The present work is issued, not with the object of establishing the truth or expediency of the principles and
methods of this form of Yoga, a matter which each will determine for himself, but as a first endeavour to supply,
more particularly for those interested in occultism and mysticism, a fuller, more accurate and rational presentation
of the subject.

The Power-Holder is Śiva. Power is
Śakti , the Great Mother of the Universe. There is no Śiva without Śakti , or Śakti without Śiva.

Power is
Śakti , the Great Mother of the Universe. There is no Śiva without Śakti , or Śakti without Śiva. The two
as they are in themselves are one. They are each Being, Consciousness and Bliss.

One mode of so doing is the Yoga here described, whereby man exchanges his limited or worldly experience for that which is the unlimited Whole (Pūrṇa) or Perfect Bliss.

His experience alone will say whether the aspirant is capable of success. It is said that of those who attempt it, one out of a thousand may have success.

The ultimate or irreducible reality is 'Spirit' in the sense of Pure Consciousness (Cit, Samvit) from out of which as and by its Power (Śakti ), Mind and Matter proceed. Spirit1 is one. There are no degrees or differen-
ces in Spirit. The Spirit which is in man is the one Spirit which is in everything and which, as the object of worship,
is the Lord (Īśvara) or God. Mind and Matter are many and of many degrees and qualities. Ātmā or Spirit as such
is the Whole (Pūrṇa) without section (Akhanda).

In the Mantra side of the Tantra Śāstra, dealing with Mantra and its origin, these two Tattvas emanating from
Śakti are from the sound side known as Nāda and Bindu. Para-Śiva and ParaŚakti are motionless (Nih-spanda) and
soundless (Nih-śabda).
Nāda is the first produced movement in the ideating cosmic consciousness leading up to the Sound-Brahman
(Śabda-Brahman ), whence all ideas, the language in which they are expressed (Śabda), and the objects (Artha) which they denote, are derived. diagram: Anusvara-moondot.

Herbert Spencer in his "First Principles," that the universe is an
unfoldment (Sṛṣṭi) from the homogeneous (MūlaPrakṛti ) to the heterogeneous (Vikṛiti ), and back to the homogeneous
again (Pralaya or Dissolution).

So as already stated it is said in the Viśvasāra Tantra: "What is here is there. What is not here is nowhere."

Apana, the downward "breath" which pulls against Prāṇa, governs the excretory functions; Samana kindles the bodily fire and governs the processes of digestion and assimilation; Vyana, or diffused "breathing," is present throughout the body, effecting division and diffusion, resisting disintegration, and holding the body together in all its parts; and Udana, the ascending Vāyu, is the so-called "upward breathing". Prāṇa is in the heart; Apāna in the anus; Samana in the navel; Udana in the throat; and Vyana pervades the whole body.3

In the manifested world, Consciousness appears in three states (Avasthā), viz2: waking (Jagrat), dreaming (Svapna),
and dreamless slumber (Suṣupti). In the waking state the Jīva is conscious of external objects (Bahih-prajña ), and is the gross enjoyer of these objects through the senses (Sthūla-bhuk).3 The Jīva in this state is called Jāgarī -
that is, he who takes upon himself the gross body called Viśva. Here the Jīva consciousness is in the gross body.
In dreaming (Svapna) the Jīva is conscious of inner objects (Antahprajña ), and the enjoyer of what is subtle (Pra-vivikta-bhuk) - that is, impressions left on the mind by objects sensed in the waking state. The objects of dreams have only an external reality for the dreamer, whereas the objects perceived when awake have such reality for all who are in that state. The mind ceases to record fresh impressions, and works on that which has been registered in the
waking state.
The first (Jagrat) state is that of sense perception. Here the ego lives in a mental world of ideas, and the Jīva consciousness is in the subtle body. Both these states are states of duality in which multiplicity is experienced.4

The third state, or that of dreamless sleep (Suṣupti), is defined as that which is neither waking nor dreaming,
and in which the varied experiences of the two former states are merged into a simple experience (Ekībhūta), as the
variety of the day is lost in night without extinction of such variety. Consciousness is not objective (Bahih-prajña ) nor
subjective (Antaḥ-prajña ), but a simple undifferenced consciousness without an object other than itself (Prajñāna -
ghana). In waking the Jīva consciousness is associated with mind and senses; in dreaming the senses are withdrawn;
in dreamless slumber mind also is withdrawn. The Jīva, called Prajña, is for the time being merged in his
causal body - that is, Prakṛti inseparably associated with Consciousness - that is, with that state of Consciousness which is the seed from which the subtle and gross bodies grow. The state is one of bliss. The Jīva is not conscious of anything,1 but on awakening preserves only the notion, "Happy I slept; I was not conscious of anything."2 This state is accordingly that which has as its objects the sense of nothingness.3 Whilst the two former states enjoy the gross and subtle objects respectively, this is the enjoyer of bliss only (Ānandabhuk) - that is, simble bliss without an object. The Lord is always the enjoyer of bliss, but in the first two states He enjoys bliss through objects. Here He enjoys bliss itself free from both subject and object. In this way the Suṣupti state approaches the Brahman Consciousness.

Beyond, therefore, the state there is the "fourth" (Turiya). Here the pure experience called Śuddhavidya is acquired through Samādhi-yoga. Jīva in the Suṣupti state is said to be in the causal (Kāraṇa) body, and Jīva in the Turiya state is said to be in the great causal (Mahā- Kāraṇa) body.1
Beyond this there is, some say, a fifth state, "beyond the fourth" (Turiyatita), which is attained through firmness in the fourth. Here the Īśvara Tattva is attained. This is the Unmeṣa2 state of consciousness, of which the Sādākhyā Tattva is the Nimeṣa.2 Passing beyond "the spotless one attains the highest equality," and is merged in the Supreme Śiva.

There is nothing necessarily holy or prayerful about a Mantra, Mantra is a power (Mantra-Śakti ) which lends itself impartially to any use. A man may be injured or killed by Mantra;2 by Mantra a kind of union with the physical

Uttered speech is a manifestation of the inner naming or thought. This thought-movement is similar in men of all races. When an Englishman or an Indian thinks of an object, the image is to both the same, whether evoked by the object itself or by the utterance of its name. Perhaps for this reason a thought-reader whose cerebral centre is in rapport with that of another may read the hidden "speech" - that is, the thought of one whose spoken speech he cannot understand. Thus, whilst the thought-movement is similar in all men, the expression of it as Vaikharī-Śabda differs. According to tradition, there was once a universal language. According to the Biblical account, this was so before the confusion of tongues at the Tower of Babel. Nor is this unlikely when we consider that difference in gross speech is due to difference of races
evolved in the course of time.

The whole world is thus Śabda and Artha - that is, name and form (Nāma Rūpa).

The Greek word Logos also means thought and word combined.

The same explanation is given as regards "Lam" in the Mūlādhāra, and the other Bījas in the other Cakras. The mere utterance,1 however, of "Ram" or any other Mantra is nothing but a movement of the lips.
1 The mind must in worship with form (Sākāra

When, however, the Mantra is "awakened"1 (Prabudha) - that is, when there is Mantra-caitanya (Mantra-consciousness) - then the Sādhaka can make the Mantra work. Thus in the case cited the Vaikharī Śabda, through its vehicle Dhvani, is the body of a power of Consciousness which enables the Mantrin to become the Lord of Fire.2 However this may be, in all cases it is the creative thought which ensouls the uttered sound which works now in man's small "magic," just as it first worked in the "grand magical display" of the World creator. His thought was the aggregate, with creative power, of all thought.

In the case of worshippers of Śiva a Boy-Śiva (Bāla Śiva) appears, who is then made strong by the nurture which the Sādhaka gives to his creation. The occultist will understand all such symbolism to mean that the Devatā is a form of the consciousness of the Sādhaka which the latter arouses and strengthens, and gains good thereby. It is his consciousness which becomes the boy Śiva, and when strengthened the full-grown Divine power
itself. All Mantras are in the body as forms of consciousness (Vijñāna-rūpa). When the Mantra is fully practised it
enlivens the Saṁskāra, and the Artha appears to the mind. Mantras are thus a form of the Saṁskāra of Jivas, the
Artha of which becomes manifest to the consciousness which is fit to perceive it. The essence of all this is -
concentrate and vitalise thought and will power. But for such a purpose a method is neoessary - namely, language
and determined varieties of practice according to the end sought. These, Mantravidya (which explains what Mantra
is) also enjoins.

The soundless is called Para-brahman or Paramātma."1 Śabda-Brahman thus projects itself for the purpose of creation into two sets of movement - namely, firstly, the Śabda (with mental vibrations of cognition) which, passing through the vocal organs, become articulate sound; and, secondly, Artha movements denoted by Śabda in the form of all things constituting the content of mind and the objective world. These two are emanations from the same Conscious
Activity (Śakti ) which is the Word (Vāk or "Logos"), and are in consequence essentially the same. Hence the connection between the two is permanent. It is in the above sense that the universe is said to be composed of the letters. It is the fifty2 letters of the Sanskrit alphabet which are denoted by the garland of severed human heads which the naked3 Mother, Kali, dark like a threatening raincloud, wears as She stands amidst bones and carrion beasts and birds in the burning-ground on the white corpse-like (Śavarūpā) body of Śiva. For it is She who "slaughters" - that is, withdraws all speech and its objects into Herself at the time of the dissolution of all things (Mahāpralaya).4
Śabda-Brahman is the Consciousness (Chaitanya) in all creatures. It assumes the form of Kuṇḍali, and abides in the body of all breathing creatures (Prānī), manifesting itself by letters in the form of prose and verse.5

Within the fiery red Tāmasik Suṣumnā is the lustrous Rājasik Vajrā or Vajriṇī Nāḍī, and within the latter the pale nectar- dropping Sāttvik Citrā or Citriṇī. The interior of the latter is called the Brahmā Nāḍī. The first is said to be fire-like (Vahni-svarūpā), the second sun-like (Sūrya-svarūpā), and the third moon-like (Candra-svarūpa).1 These are the threefold aspect of the Śabdabrahman. The opening at the end of the Citriṇī Nāḍī is called the door of Brahman (Brahmā-dvāra), for through it the Devī Kuṇḍalī enters to ascend.

The Mūlādhāra is the meeting-place of the three "rivers," and hence is called Yukta-triveṇī. Proceeding from the Ādhāra lotus, they alternate from right to left and left to right, thus going round the lotuses. According to another account, their position is that of two bows on either side of the spinal cord. An Indian medical friend tells me that these are not discrepant accounts, but represent different positions according as Iḍa and Piṅgalā exist inside or outside the spinal cord. When they reach the space between the eyebrows known as the Ājñā Cakra, they enter the Suṣumnā, making a plaited knot of three called Muktatriveni. The three "Rivers," which are again united at this point, flow separately therefrom, and for this reason the Ājñā Cakra is called Mukta-triveṇī. After separation, the Nāḍī which proceeded from the right testicle goes to the left nostril, and that from the left testicle to the right nostril.

"1. Suṣumnā, in the central channel of the spinal cord.2. Iḍā, the left sympathetic chain, stretching from under the left nostril to below the left kidney in the form of a bent bow.3. Piṅgalā, the corresponding chain on the right.4..Kuhu, the pudic nerve of the sacral plexus, to the left of the spinal cord.5. Gandhari, to the back of the left sympathetic chain, supposed to stretch from below the corner of the left eye to the left leg. It was evidently supposed that some nerves of the cervical plexus came down through the spinal cord and joined on to the great sciatic nerve of the sacral plexus.

6. Hasti-jihvā, to the front of the left sympathetic chain, stretching from below the corner of the left eye to the great toe of the left foot, on the same supposition as before. Pathological facts were believed to point to a special nerve connection between the eyes and the toes. 7. Sarasvatī, to the right of Śuṣumnā, stretching up to the tongue (the hypoglossal nerves of the cervical plexus). 8. Pūṣā, to the back of the right sympathetic chain, stretching from below the corner of the right eye to the abdomen (a connected chain of cervical and lumbar nerves). 9. Payasvinī, between Pūṣā and Sarasvatī, auricular branch of the cervical plexus on the left. 10. Śaṅkhinī, between Gāndhārī and Sarasvatī, auricular branch of the cervical plexus on the left.11. Yaśasvinī, to the front of the right sympathetic chain, stretching from the right thumb to the left leg (the radial nerve of the brachial plexus continued on to certain branches of the great sciatic).12. Vāruṇā, the nerves of the sacral plexus, between Kuhū and Yaśasvinī, ramifying over the lower trunk and limbs.13. Viśvodarā, the nerves of the lumbar plexus, between Kuhū and Hasti-jihvā, ramifying over the lower trunk and limbs.14. Alaṁbuṣā, the coccygeal nerves, proceeding from the sacral vertebrae to the urino-genital organs."1

This crimson Mūlādhāra lotus1 is described as one of four petals, the Vṛttis of which are the four forms of bliss known as Paramānanda, Sahajānanda, Yogānanda and Virānanda.2 On these four petals are the golden letters Vaṁ (वं) Śam (शं), Ṣam (षं), and Sam(सं).3 (

This Lotus is the centre of the yellow Pṛthivī, or "Earth" Tattva, with its quadrangular Maṇḍala, the Bīja or Mantra of which Tattva is Laṁ

The Svadhisthana Cakra is the second lotus proceeding upwards, and is, according to the commentary, so called after Sva or the Param Liṅgaṁ.5 It is a vermilion lotus of six petals placed in the spinal centre of the region at the root of the genitals. On these petals are the letters like lightning: Baṁ, Bhaṁ, Maṁ, Yaṁ, Raṁ, Laṁ

The Bīja of water (Varuna) is "Vam". This, the Varuna Bīja, is seated on a white Makara1 with a noose
in his hand. Hari (Viṣṇu) and Rakini Śakti of furious aspect, showing Her teeth fiercely, are here (vv.14 -18). Above it, at the centre of the region of the navel, is the lotus Maṇipūra (Nābhi-padma), so called, according to the Gautamīya-Tantra, because, owing to the presence of the fiery Tejas, it is lustrous as a gem (Mani).2 It is a lotus of ten petals on which are the letters Dam-डं, Dham-ढं, Nam-णं, Tam-तं, Tham-थं, Dam-दं Dham-धं, Nam-नं Pam-पं, Pham-फं.

Anāhata is the great Cakra in the heart of all beings. Omkara is said to be there in association with the three Guṇas."l The Mahā-svac-chandra Tantra says:2 "The great ones declare that Thy blissful form, O Queen,
manifests in Anāhata, and is experienced by the mind invard-turned of the Blessed Ones, whose hairs stand on end and whose eyes weep with joy." This is a lotus of twelve petals with the vermilion letters Kaṁ-कं, Kham-खं, Gam-गं Gham-घं, ṅam-ङं, Cam-चं, Cham-छं, Jam-जं, Jham-झं , Jñam-ञं, Ṭam-टं, Ṭham-ठं. This is the centre of the Vāyu Tattva. According to v.22, the region of Vāyu is six-cornered (that is formed by two triangles, of which

At the spinal centre of the region at the base of the throat (Kaṇṭha-Mūla) is the Viśuddha Cakra or Bhā-
ratīsthāna,1 with sixteen petals of a smoky purple hue, on which are the sixteen vowels with Bindu.
Aṁ = अं
Āṁ = आं
Iṁ = इं
Īṁ = ईं
Uṁ = उं
Ūṁ = ऊं
Ṛṁ = ऋं
ṚŪṁ = ॠं
Lriṁ = ऌं
Lrīṁ = ॡं
Eṁ = एं
Aiṁ = ऐं
Om = ओं
Auṁ = औं
Aṁ = अं
Ah = अः

Progress is next made to the last or Ājñā Cakra, in which are the subtle Tattyas of Mind and Prakṛiti. The Cakra is so called because it is here that the command (Ājñā ) of the Guru is received from above. It is a lotus of two white petals between the eyebrows, on which are the white letters Ham (हं) and Kṣam (क्षं). This exhausts the fifty letters. It

Yoga (vide post) the Ātmā is revealed (Ātma-sākṣātkāra).
Lastly, through Samādhi the quality of Nirliptatva, or detachment, and thereafter Mukti (Liberation) is attained.
This Samādhi Yoga is, according to the Gheraṇḍa Saṁhitā, of six kinds:1 (1) DhyānayogaSamādhi, attained by Śāṁbhavī-Mudrā,2 in which, after meditation on the Bindu-Brahman and realization of the Ātmā (Ātmā-pratyakṣa), the latter is resolved into the Mahākāśa or the Great Ether. (2) Nāda-yoga, attained by Khecari Mudrā,3 in which the tongue is lengthened until it reaches the space between the eyebrows, and is then introduced in a reversed position into the mouth. This may be done with or without cutting of the fraenam. (3) Rasānanda-yoga, attained by Kuṁbhaka,4 in which the Sādhaka in a silent place closes both ears and does Pūraka and Kuṁbhaka until he hears Nāda in sounds varying in strength from that of the cricket's chirp to that of the large kettledrum. By daily practice the Anāhata sound is heard, and the Light (Jyotih) with the Manas therein is seen, which is ultimately dissolved in the supreme Viṣṇu. (4) Laya-siddhi-yoga accomplished by the celebrated Yoni-Mudrā already described.5 The Sādhaka, thinking of himself as Śakti and the Paramātma as Puruṣa, feels himself in union (Saṅgama) with Śiva; and enjoys with Him the bliss which is Śṛṅgāra-rasa, 6 and becomes

Bliss itself, or the Brahman. (5) Bhakti Yoga, in which meditation is made on the Iṣṭa-devatā with devotion
(Bhakti) until, with tears flowing from the excess of bliss, the ecstatic condition is attained. (6) Rajayoga, accomplished by aid of the Manomūrcchā Kuṁbhaka.1 Here the Manas, detached from all worldly objects, is fixed between
the eyebrows in the Ājñā Cakra, and Kuṁbhaka is done. By the union of the Manas with the Ātmā, in which the
Jñānī sees all things, Rāja-yoga-samādhi is attained.

The Āsanas, Kuṁbhakas, Bandhas, and Mudrās, are used to rouse Kuṇḍalinī, so that the Prāṇa withdrawn from Iḍa and Piṅgalā may by the power of its Śakti , after entry into the Suṣumnā or void (Śūnya), go upwards towards the Brahmā-randhra2. The Yogi is then said to be free of the active Karma, and attains the natural state,3

Restraint of breath also renders the semen firm. For the semen fluctuates as long as Prāṇa does so. And when the semen is not steady the mind is not steady.3 The mind thus trained detaches itself
from the world. These various results are said to be achieved by rousing Kuṇḍalinī, and by the subsequent processes for which She is the "key". "As one forces open a door with a key, so the Yogi should force open the door of Liberation by Kuṇḍalinī.''4 For it is She who sleeps in the Mūlādhāra, closing with Her mouth the channel
(Suṣumnā) by which ascent may be made to the Brahmā-randhra.

The Yogakundali-Upaniṣad 1 states the following methods and others mentioned: When Prana is passing through Iḍā, assume Padmasana and lengthen the Akasa of 12 points by 4--that is, as in exhalation Prana goes out in 16 measures, and in inhalation comes in 12, inhale for 16 and thus gain power. Then, holding the sides by each hand, stir up Kuṇḍalinī with all one's strength from right to left fearlessly for 48 minutes. Draw the body up a little to let Kuṇḍalī enter Susumna. The Yogi does a drawing-up-movement in which the shoulders are raised and dropped. Prana enters of itself with Her. Compressing above and expanding below, and vice versa, Prana rises.

When a Yogi whose mind is under control is able to confine the moon in her own place, as also the sun, then the moon and sun become confined, and consequently the moon cannot shed its nectar nor the sun dry it. Next, when the place of nectar becomes dried by the fire with the help of Vayu, then the Kuṇḍalī wakes up for

want of food and hisses like a serpent. Afterwards, breaking through the three knots, She runs to Sahasrara and bites the Candra (moon), which is in the middle of the same. Then the nectar begins to flow, and wets the (other) Candra-Mandala in Ajiia-Cakra. From the latter the whole body becomes bedewed with nectar. Afterwards the fifteen eternal Kalas (part) of Candra (moon) in, Ajna go to Visuddhi and move thereon. The Candra-Mandala in Sahasrara is also called Baindava. One Kala remains there always. That Kala is nothing but Cit Itself, which is also called Atman. We call Her Tripurasundari. It is understood by this that, in order to rouse the Kuṇḍalī, one should practise in the lunar fortnight alone, and not in the solar one."

Kuṇḍalinī is led upwards "as a rider guides a trained mare by the reins," through the aperture hitherto closed by Her own coils, but now open, within the entrance of the Citrini-Nadi. She then pierces, in that Nadi, each of the lotuses, which turn their heads upwards as She passes through them. As 'Kuṇḍalinī united with the subtle Jivatma passes through each of these lotuses, She absorbs into Herself the regnant Tattvas of each of these centres, and all that has been above
described to be in them. As the ascent is made, each of the grosser Tattvas enters into the Laya state, and is replaced by the energy of Kuṇḍalinī , which after the passage of the Visuddha-Cakra replaces them all. The senses which operate in association with these grosser Tattvas are merged in Her, who then absorbs into Herself the subtle Tattvas of the Ajna. Kuṇḍalinī Herself takes on a different aspect as She ascends the three planes, and unites with each of the Lingas in that form of Hers which is appropriate to such union. For whereas in the Mūlādhāra She is the Śakti of all in their gross or physical manifested state (Virat), at the stage of Ajiia, She is the Śakti of the

Great Power (Siddhi) is had by the man who can keep Kuṇḍalī- Śakti in the Sahasrāra three days and three nights.

She can be in a permanent manner retained there.1 For it is to be observed that liberation is not gained by merely leading Kuṇḍalī to the Sahasrāra, and of course still less is it gained by stirring it up in the Mūlādhāra or fixing it in any of the lower centres. Liberation is gained only when Kuṇḍalī takes up Her permanent abode in the Sahasrāra, so that She only returns by the will of the Sādhaka. It is said that after staying in Sahasrāra for a time, some Yogins lead the Kuṇḍalinī back to Hṛdaya (heart), and worship Her there. This is done by those who are unable to stay long in Sahasrāra. If they take the Kuṇḍalinī lower than Hṛdaya - i.e., worship Her in the three Cakras below Anāhata they no longer, it is said, belong to the Samaya group.2

Pandit R. Ananta Śastri says l that "The Samaya method of worshipping Śakti , called the Samayācāra,2 is dealt with in five treatises whose reputed authors are the great sages Sanaka, Sananda, Sanatkumāra, Vaśiṣṭha, and Śuka.

By means of Mantra, Haṭha and Laya-Yoga
the practitioner by gradual attainment of purity becomes fit for Savikalpa-Samādhi. It is through Rāja Yoga alone
that he can attain to Nirvikalpa-Samādhi.

Rāja-Yoga comprises sixteen divisions. There are seven varieties of Vicāra (reasoning) in seven planes of knowledge (Bhūmika) called Jñānada, Sannyāsadā, Yogadā, Līlonmukti, Satpadā, Ānandapadā and Parātparā.1 By exercise therein the Raja-Yogi gradually effectively practises the two kinds of Dhāraṇā,2 viz., Prakṛtyāśraya and Brahmāśraya dependent on Nature or Brahman respectively.

By meditating thus on Her who shines within the Mula-Cakra, with the lustre of ten million Suns, a man becomes Lord of speech and King among men, and an Adept in all kinds of learning. He becomes ever free from all diseases, and his inmost Spirit becomes full of great gladness. Pure of disposition by his deep and musical words, he serves the foremost of the Devas.

He who meditates upon this stainless Lotus, which is named Svadisthana, is freed immediately from all his enemies, such as the fault of Aha kara and so forth. He becomes a Lord among Yogis, and is like the Sun illumining the dense darkness of ignorance. The wealth of his nectar-like words flows in prose and verse in well-reasoned discourse.

The 12 letters from Ka to Tha are on the petals: Ka, Kha, Ga, Gha, Ña, Ca, Cha, Ja, Jha, Na, Ṭa, Ṭha.

He who meditates on this Heart Lotus becomes (like) the Lord of Speech, and (like) Isvara he is able to protect and destroy the worlds. This Lotus is like the celestial wishing-tree, the abode and seat of Sarva. It is beautified by the Hamsa, which is like unto the steady tapering flame of a lamp in a windless place. The filaments which surround and adorn its pericarp, illumined by the solar region, charm.

Foremost among Yogis, he is ever dearer than the dearest to women, He is pre-eminently wise and full of noble deeds. His senses are completely under control. His mind in its intense concentration is engrossed in thoughts of the Braham. His inspired speech flows like a stream of (clear) water. He is like the Devata who is the beloved of Laksmi and is able at will to enter another's body.

He who has attained complete knowledge of the Atma (Brahman) becomes by constantly concentrating his mind (Citta) on this Lotus a great Sage, eloquent and wise, and enjoys uninterrupted peace of mind. He sees the three periods, and becomes the benefactor of all, free from disease and sorrow and long-lived, and, like Hamsa, the destroyer of endless dangers.

Veda Vidhas are those proficient in Vedas. Aksara is the imperishable word AUM. Brahmacharya or celibacy is one of the angas, limbs, or steps that an ascetic has to climb, before he can be called an ascetic.
The angas are eight in all:
(1) Yama, Abstinence (Don’ts)
(2) Niyama, Restraint (Dos)
(3) Asana, Body Postures
(4) Prānayama, Breath Control
(5) Pratyahara, Abrogation of contact with sense objects
(6) Dharana, Concentration
(7) Dyana, meditation
(8) Samādhi, Union or Absorption

"Lotus of twelve letters" (Dvādaśarṇa-sarasīruha)-i.e., the Lotus which contains twelve letters. The twelve letters, according to those learned in the Tantras, are the twelve letters which make the Gurumantra; they are Sa, ha, kha, phrem, ha, sa, ksa, ma, la, va, ra, yūm. Some say that by Dvādaśārṇa is meant the twelfth vowel, which is the Vāg-bhava-bija.l But that cannot be. If it were so, the authority quoted below would be tautologous: "(Meditate on) your Guru who is Siva as being on the lustrous (Hamsapītha, the substance of which is Mantra---Mantra-maya), which is in the pericarp of the Lotus of twelve letters, near the region of the Moon2 in the pericarp, and which is adorned by the letters Ha, La, and Ksa, which are within the triangle A-Ka-Tha. The lotus of twelve letters is in the pericarp (of the Sahasrara)."

I ADORE the Abode of Sakti in the place where the two pericarps come together. It is formed by the lines1 A, Ka, and Tha; and the letters Ha, La, and Ksa, which are visible in each of its corners, give it the character of a Maṇḍala2.

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